Posts Tagged ‘Neckclothitania’

Once you have made a Regency neckcloth, you might be interested in learning how to tie it!

Neckclothitania was a pamphlet published in 1818 and illustrated some of the popular ways of tying men’s neckwear at this time. According to the author, there were many ways of tying a cravat and he had only intended “to merely give a slight sketch … of a dozen or so most in use.”

The illustration that accompanied his descriptions is reprinted below.

The frontispiece illustration of Neckclothitania (1818)

Way of Folding

Regency cravats were very well starched, so they needed to be folded so they could be placed around the neck without getting unintended creases in them!

After having folded the neck-cloth, and made it of the depth, &c. according to the wearer’s taste, let the two ends be turned over, as in the frontispiece, the right-hand end, to be turned down, the left-hand end, to be turned up. The advantages of following this rule, will soon be discovered. It removes the awkward appearance caused by crossing the ends behind [the neck]; the ends are also by this means brought forward in a smooth and uncrumpled state, and fit to make the knot. It also makes the neck-cloth lay smooth and even behind, a thing which has hitherto been too much neglected – The same care almost should be given to the back as the front part.

The way of folding

This way of folding creates a smoother look at the back of the neck.

Tying a Cravat

The Basic Knot

Step One: After arranging the neckcloth around the neck, cross the right end over the left, forming an X.

Step Two: Pull the right end through the top so it hangs down creaseless. This will form the front of the knot.

Step Three: Holding the left end in a loop to the side…

Step Four: …Turn the right end under and pull through the loop.

Step Five: Tighten

Step Six: Arrange the knot to sit flat, so the front face of the knot is uncreased.

Obviously, a blue shirt is not quite period, but I have used it so the detail of the cravat tying is a bit more apparent! This knot was made with a triangular cloth (see the Mathematical Tie, below) and took an enormous amount of practise to achieve a look that at least resembled the illustration above. I now have the highest respect for fashionable gentleman!

As far as I can discover, the basic manner of construction of both a Barrel Knot and a Gordian Knot are the same as described above. The main difference between them is that they are arranged differently once they are completed. One is thicker and one is thinner, as seen in the illustration in Neckclothitania.

This basic knot is used in the Oriental, Mathematical, Osbaldeston, American, Trone d’Amour, Irish, and Horse Collar Ties. The minor differences between these ties are noted below.

The Oriental Tie: “…is made with a very stiff and rigid cloth… Care should be taken, that not a single indenture or crease should be visible in this tie; it must present a round, smooth, and even surface…”. The cloth is laid creaseless on the front of the neck and wrapped around so the ends come to the front again for tying in a knot.

The Mathematical (or Triangular) Tie: “is far less severe than the former – there are three creases in it.” It appears that the front face of the cravat that is laid against the neck is deliberately creased in particular places, and that these creases form the major differences between these types of ties. This tie has two diagonal creases from under each ear to the knot, and a horizontal crease at the centre front which reaches to each side indenture.

The Mathematical Tie, with my best efforts at collateral and horizontal creases! Made with a triangular cloth measuring 11 inches wide at the centre and 80 inches long, folded in thirds lengthwise. The benefit of using a triangular tie for these knotted Tie styles is that the ends are less bulky and are easier to tie.

The American Tie: “differs little from the Mathematical, except that the collateral indentures do not extend so near to the ear [the diagonal crease between the ear and the knot are not as long], and that there is no horizontal or middle crease in it.”

The Irish Tie: “This one resembles in some degree the Mathematical, with, however, this difference, that the horizontal indenture is placed below the point of junction formed by the collateral creases instead of being above.” You can see in the illustration that the front face of the cravat has the two diagonal creases with a centre front horizontal crease below. [It’s all so complicated!]

The Trone d’Amour Tie: “is the most austere after the Oriental Tie – It must be extremely well stiffened with starch.” There is only “one single horizontal dent in the middle” of the front face of the cravat.

The Osbaldeston Tie: “This neck-cloth is first laid on the back of the neck, the ends brought forward, and tied in a large knot, the breadth of which must be at least four inches, and two inches deep. This tie is very well adapted for summer; because instead of going round the neck twice, it confines itself to once.”

The Horse Collar Tie: “It is certainly the worst and most vulgar… It has the appearance of a great half-moon, or horse-collar”. I presume the author refers to the great horizontal crease that goes right through the middle of front face of the cravat, making it look like the collar of a horse pulling a cart. He gives no instructions for how to achieve such a look!

The Napoleon, Ballroom and Hunting Ties are also similar in design.

The Napoleon Tie: “It is first laid … on the back of the neck, the ends being brought forwards and crossed, without tying, and then fastened to the braces, or carried under the arms and tied on the back. It has a very pretty appearance, giving the wearer a languishingly amorously look.” [Now, don’t we all want that!]

The Ballroom Tie: This is laid on the front of the neck first and so “it unites the qualities of the Mathematical and Irish, having two collateral dents and two horizontal ones… It has no knot, but is fastened as the Napoleon.”

The Hunting Tie: “is formed by two collateral [those diagonal ones again] dents on each side, and meeting in the middle, without any horizontal ones”. It could be fastened with a Gordian knot or be crossed over like the Napoleon and Ballroom Ties (as it has been in the illustration).

The Ballroom Tie, with my attempt at collateral and horizontal dents! Made with a cloth measuring 6″ x 80″, folded in half lengthwise and attached at the back with a safety pin.

The Mailcoach Tie or Waterfall: “is made by tying it with a single knot [what I would call half a knot], and then bringing one of the ends over, so as completely to hide the knot, and spreading it out, and turning it down in the waistcoat. The neck-cloth ought to be very large to make this Tie properly”. When the author says large, he probably means both long and wide, as this looks like it goes several times around the neck and needs to be wide enough to create a nice fall at the front. “A Kushmeer shawl is the best, I may even say, the only thing with which it can be made.”

The Mailcoach Tie, made with a cloth measuring 10″ x 50″. This sized cloth is wide enough to get a nice waterfall, but is way too short. Muslin would be great for this tie.

The Maharatta or Nabob Tie: “is very cool, as it is always made with fine muslin neck-cloths – It is first placed on the back of the neck, the ends are then brought forward, and joined as a chain-link, the remainder is then turned back, and fastened behind.” I presume it is turned back over the shoulder, rather than under the arms.

The Maharatta Tie, made with a cloth measuring 10″ x 50″, folded in half lengthwise and safety-pinned at the back of the neck.

Having Trouble?

Neckclothitania also gave it’s readers some handy hints on a number of topics relevant to the tying of neckcloths.

When a starched neckcloth is brought home from the wash, it will be immediately seen, that one side is smooth and shining, the other more rough: this is occasioned by the one side being ironed, and the other not. I do it myself, and consequently recommend it to others, that the rough side should be worn outside during the day, but, that, on putting on a cloth for the evening, the smooth side should be the visible one.

Does your cravat come loose from your waistcoat and fly about? Do you need a Regency tie clip?

After the knot is made, take a piece of white tape, and tie one end of it tight, to one end of the neckcloth, then carry the tape under your arm, behind your back, under the other arm, and fasten it tightly to the other end of the neckcloth. The tape must not be visible. This way prevents the knot from flying up, which would thereby shorten the length of the cloth, and in short greatly injure its appearance.

Mr Darcy (Colin Firth)

How do you get that very suave “Mr Darcy” appearance?

On putting on the neck-cloth, take that part which is immediately under the ears, with your thumb and finger, and pull it up till it reaches the ear, and continue to make it maintain permanently that position – Nothing displays more mauvais gout [Translation: bad taste], than seeing a cloth forming a straight line from the chin to the ear.

…after the neckcloth is finished, you should pass your finger along the upper ridge, in order to make it lay smooth, and look thin and neat.

Are you struggling to be properly swathed in neckcloth?

Let the front part of the cloth be brought in a line with the extremity of the chin – Nothing gives a person more the appearance of a goose, than to see a long part of the jaw and chin projecting over the neckcloth.

In Elegant Conclusion

Only slightly tongue-in-cheek!

Independently of all these numerous advantages – what an apparent superiority does not a starcher give to a man? It gives him a look of hauteur [height] and greatness, which can scarcely be acquired otherwise – This is produced solely by the austere rigidity of the cravat, which so far, by any means, from yielding to the natural motions of the head, forms a strong support to the cheeks. It pushes them up, and gives a rotundity of appearance to the whole figure [face], thereby unquestionably giving a man the air of being puffed up with pride, vanity, and conceit, (very necessary, nay, indispensable qualifications for a man of fashion) and appearing as quite towering over the rest of mankind, and holding his fellow-creatures covered with the deep disgrace of his disgust.

I need only appeal to any common observer, to prove the veracity of the above assertions – Let any person take a stroll up and down some fashionable street of the metropolis, at the proper time of day, and remark the men who do and who do not wear starchers: What a conscious sense of their own superiority in the former! What a full conviction of their own paltriness and insignificance in the latter!!

What a picture that paints!

The next item in Mr Knightley’s wardrobe is a waistcoat.

To read all of the “MY Mr Knightley” posts in order, go to My Regency Journey.

Related Posts

MY Mr Knightley: Making an 18th Century Shirt

MY Mr Knightley: Making a Neckcloth

Sources and Relevant Links

All quotations from Neckclothitania; or Tietania, being an essay on starchers, by one of the cloth – read it free as an ebook on Google. Whilst the frontispiece illustration is referred to in the text, it is not included in this particular scan.

The Regency Neckcloth – this site has full descriptions of the particular ties from Neckclothitania.

Ways to tie an 18th Century Cravat – Jas Townsend & Son You Tube video

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“Full and half full dress for April” in Le Beau Monde, 1808

The second item of clothing in my men’s Regency wardrobe will be a neckcloth or cravat. In Regency times, a cravat was used for the same purpose as a bow-tie or neck-tie is currently used in today’s society. It was pretty much a “dressing” for the neck of a shirt.

Cravats originated in the early 1600’s when the use of Elizabethan ruffs began to fall out of fashion. The French had copied the fashion of the Middle Eastern men who wore a simple strip of material tied in a knot around the neck.

This new form of neckwear was in use throughout the 18th and 19th century in various forms and were known by several different names, including stocks, neckerchiefs, and scarves. During this time they varied in style, material and colour, but they all consisted of a strip of fabric that went around the neck and was fastened in some manner.

The 18th century lace cravats gave way to plain white linen ones during the Regency era. By 1818, pale coloured cravats were introduced for daywear (according to Neckclothitania, a pamphlet discussing various ways to tie neckcloths). Later in the 19th century, black cravats and then patterned ones appeared. The forerunner of the modern tie was developed in the late 19th century.

Making a Cravat

During the Regency, neckcloths were cut differently depending on the way in which they were tied. The materials they were made out of also differed depending on the manner of tying, as some required a more delicate flowing fabric, and others required a stiffened appearance. My next post in this series will cover the different ways of tying cravats.

There are two basic ways to make a Regency cravat. Either:

  1. Cut a long strip of cotton or linen material about 4 to 8 inches wide and at least 60 to 80 inches long, depending on the types of ties you will make. If you want your cravat to go twice around the neck then 80 inches is best.
  2. Or cut a triangular piece of material, with the base of the triangle 60 to 80 inches long and against the selvedge. The height or point of the triangle should be centred in the middle and measure 10 inches high.

A drawing of how to cut a triangular cravat

The picture above shows the cutting line when a length of material is folded with selvedges aligned. The height of the triangle is 10 inches (remember to allow a little extra for a seam allowance) and the length along the selvedge should be half of the finished length.

You can also cut a second triangular neckcloth (or a rectangular one) out of the other selvedge edges.

Once the material is cut and opened out, you will have an isosceles triangle with two edges to hem. Hem the raw edges and you are ready to begin tying!

My next post in this series is on tying a cravat.

To read all of the “MY Mr Knightley” posts in order, go to My Regency Journey.

Related Posts

MY Mr Knightley: Making an 18th Century Shirt

Sources and Relevant Links

Image Source, Le Beau Monde or Literary Fashion Magazine, April 1808.

History of Cravats

Neckclothitania; or Tietania, being an essay on starchers, by one of the cloth – read it free as an ebook on Google.

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