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Posts Tagged ‘Ackermann’s Repository’

For my previous stitch sampler I focused on practising some of the stitches used in Dresden whitework embroidery. Many of these stitches had been used from before the 18th century and continued to be used during the Regency. So for my next sampler, I decided to focus more on how the Regency embroidery designs had changed.

During the Regency period, embroidery designs became much more delicate and “flowy” than their 18th century predecessors. Some of the common flower, bud, leaf and frond motives had been quite large and bulky, but changed a little in shape to be more delicate. Often the designs were smaller in size and were repeated more frequently in the embroidery sequence, and – as a result – the areas of pulled work embroidered also became smaller during this era. Other Regency designs were still quite large but the flowing and dainty nature of the design made it subtly different to the style used in the 18th century. “Sprigged muslin”, where muslin fabric was embroidered with quite small motives to form a “dotted” design, became very popular. Linear designs also became more popular, probably due to its likeness of Greek and Roman clothing trims which the new model of Regency fashion was based on.

My design has been copied from a needlework pattern from Ackermann’s Repository, the one in the centre below.

A Regency needlework pattern, from Ackermann's Repository (June 1812).

A Regency needlework pattern, from Ackermann’s Repository (June 1812).

Once again used premium cotton muslin and chose a convenient handkerchief-sized piece for my sampler, finished with a handsewn rolled hem. I used many of the same stitches as I used in my previous sampler: chain stitch, satin stitch, eyelets and blanket stitched pinwheels. The pulled stitches I have used here have also been used before in my pulled work sampler.

My finished "handkerchief", ready to throw down so the nearest "redcoat" can pick it up for me.

My finished “handkerchief”, ready to throw down so the nearest “redcoat” can pick it up for me.

The six pulled work areas were worked in the centre of the paisley shapes and were all different: (from top left to bottom right) ring-backed stitch, double backstitch, faggot stitch, honeycomb stitch, spaced wave stitch and four-sided stitch. The pulled work in period examples leaves much larger “holes” in the fabric than I have in this example, so I will have to practice my technique some more.

A close-up of one edge of the embroidery, with the stitches labelled.

A close-up of one edge of the embroidery, with the embroidery stitches labelled.

I am really pleased with how this turned out, and now I am ready to start designing my embroidered fichu!

Related Posts

Pulled Work Sampler: Part One

Dresden Whitework Stitch Sampler

Sources and Relevant Links

Regency needlework designs (1811-1815), from Ackermann’s Repository – at My Fanciful Muse

Pulled work stitches – by Lynxlace

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Parisian bonnets from Ackermann's Repository (1817)

“Parisian Head Dresses” from Ackermann’s Repository (1817)

At the Jane Austen Festival in 2013, I did a workshop on making a bonnet from buckram. I have always wanted to do more millinery but have struggled to know where to start without proper tuition, so this workshop was very exciting for me!

The pattern was of a late Regency bonnet, circa 1817, and was provided as part of the workshop. The basic materials (buckram, wire, and pellon) were also provided. We were set to work handsewing the strips of metal wire to the edges of the buckram.

In millinery, the buckram is cut to the desired shape and the wire is used to hold the buckram in this shape. For this reason it is important to pre-shape the wire to the desired shape before attaching it to the buckram. It is also important to double check that the part of the hat that sits on the head will fit your head!

The buckram top and brim, partially assembled

The buckram crown and brim, partially assembled. This is as far as I got in the class.

Once I got home, I sprayed the assembled buckram frame with a spray-on adhesive and stuck the pellon (thin layer of padding) to it. The pellon pieces covered the entire outer sections of the hat, as well as the inside brim area. The inside of the bonnet had no pellon.

The buckram frame fully assembled with the pellon adhered

The buckram frame fully assembled with the pellon adhered

Then the fabric was cut out and handstitched to the frame. The fabric was cut out in 6 pieces: the outer top, the inner top, the outer side, the inner side, the outer brim, the inner brim. The fabric I chose for the inner sections was different to the fabric I chose for the outer sections, thereby creating a contrasting lining.

The bonnet with the fabric handsewn on

The bonnet with the fabric handsewn on

Then I decorated it. The trimmings were all sewn on by hand after the hat was finished. This means that the trimmings can be easily removed and replaced later to create a new look.

All finished!

All finished!

"Parisian Bonnets" from Ackermann's Repository (1817)

“Parisian Bonnets” from Ackermann’s Repository (1817)

The piped band and ribbon flowers were both made by me (the links are below), and I obtained the ostrich feather from my local craft store.

These pictures from Ackermann’s Repository helped provide ideas of how these bonnets were trimmed at this time. I particularly wanted mine to match the Regency spencer I have just finished. Now I have a lovely bonnet-and-spencer ensemble! For my first-ever buckram hat, I am pretty pleased with how it turned out.

I really loved the opportunity to work with buckram because the skills I have acquired give me so much more versatility to my hatmaking. Now I am able to purchase other hat patterns or draft my own to make my own range of hats.

Hats are my cup of tea!

Related Posts

How to make a piped band

Making Ribbon Flowers

How to make a Regency Poke Bonnet in Ten Steps

Making a Regency Spencer

Jane Austen Festival – Australia, 2013

Sources and Relevant Links

Image Source: Regency Era Fashions from Ackermann’s Repository 1817 – by EKDuncan “My Fanciful Muse”

The Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics, by Ackermann – read various volumes online

How to make a Regency stovepipe bonnet from buckram – Youtube tutorial (The author recommends using millinery wire as I have done, but does not use it in this particular tutorial.)

Covering a Regency stovepipe bonnet – Youtube tutorial (The author shows how to cover a buckram frame. I sewed, rather than glued, mine.)

From the Neck Up: An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking, by Denise Dreher – this book has many ideas for hat patterns, as well as construction steps and decorating ideas.

Jane Austen Festival, Australia – website

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Evening dress (1816); from Ackermann's Repository.

The eighth stop on my Regency Journey is to make a ball gown. Balls and dancing were a frequent entertainment in Regency times, as was evening parties with friends. People would often dress elaborately for dinner, even if they were not going out or entertaining. For these reasons, evening wear was often elaborately decorated with embroidery, spangles (sequins), and lace. Women’s evening gowns in the Regency era were also often low cut around the bosom and had very short sleeves.

Jane Austen wrote to her sister, Cassandra, about a ball she attended in 1810.

Our ball was rather more amusing than I expected. Martha liked it very much, and I did not gape till the last quarter of an hour. It was past nine before we were sent for and not twelve when we returned. The room was tolerably full, and there were, perhaps, thirty couple of dancers. The melancholy part was, to see so many dozen young ladies standing by without partners, and each of them with two ugly naked shoulders.

Jane Austen (1810)

An Evening Dress (1818): Description of how it is made.

As I did not have a pattern for a ball gown (or any idea of where to start drafting one), I did have to do a fair bit of research into the way dresses were constructed and the types of embellishments they had. I derived my inspiration from several fashion plates, published in Ackermann’s Repository. Each issue of this journal had descriptions of some of the popular fashions that had been seen worn in France, with descriptions of how they had been made.

For instance, the white gown (1816; pictured above) was described as “a white crape frock over a satin slip; […] ornamented with French Lama work in silver; the dress is cut very low all around the bosom, and the crape fronts are open at each side so as to display the white satin one underneath. The sleeve is an intermixture of white satin and crape; the latter full, the former tastefully ornamented with silver, to correspond with the bottom of the dress.”

Dinner Dress (1818); from Ackermann's Repository

During the years 1815-1820, the fashions had begun to change from the simple, plain muslin dresses of 1800-1810. The sleeves and bodices of dresses became shorter and more elaborately decorated, and to balance this, the bottoms of dresses were also embellished. These embellishments, as well as side gores for the skirt, changed the silhouette of the skirt to be more triangular.

Jane Austen, much to be lamented, died in 1817, and her last two novels were published posthumously in 1818. As a tribute to her, my ball gown will be inspired by the fashions of these years.

I will try to do further justice to this remarkable author by endeavouring to prevent my “two ugly naked shoulders” being visible at the Jane Austen Festival Ball!

Making a Ball Gown

The Pattern

I had no pattern to work from this time, except ideas I had gathered from fashion plates and the things I learnt constructing my last two day dresses. Using these as a starting point, I drafted the pattern.

1. Using my body measurements, I drew out the pattern on 1/4 inch grid paper and cut it out. Seam allowances were added when the fabric was cut out. All measurements stated from here on DO NOT include seam allowances.

Important Measurements to take for this type of dress:

  • Waist circumference (the waistline is high under the bust in this case)
  • Arm circumference at the underarm and mid-upper arm (for the armband)
  • Arm length from shoulder to mid-upper arm (for the short sleeve)
  • Circumference of the arm at the shoulder (armhole measurement)
  • Shoulder to waist measurement (for the height of the bodice)
  • Waist (underbust) to floor measurement (for skirt length)

2. As the material was so expensive (and because I was unsure of my skill for designing such a garment from scratch!), I decided to make a mock-up or toile of the bodice out of some scrap cotton calico I had in my stash. This enabled me to make mistakes without fear of financial ruin! This mock-up was also done with the sleeves.

My bodice toile (front): This enabled me to experiment with the neckline, waistline and the shoulder straps in order to get the right "look".

My toile (back): I experimented with the back "arch" which was common this era, though I went a bit too far on the toile!

3. The pattern for the skirt front and back were merely two large rectangles. The front skirt was cut on the fold, measuring 10″ x 48″, and the back skirt was cut on two layers of fabric, measuring 36″ x 51″. Triangular side gores (right-angled triangle), which point backwards, were common in this era and provided more fullness to the skirt. Mine were 48” long and 15″ wide at the bottom, narrowing to a point at the top. The waistband was 35″ long and 1/2″ wide. The armband was 15” long and 1″ wide. All other pattern pieces are shown on 1/4 inch grid paper in the photo below.

The pattern pieces: Front Bodice, Back Bodice, Back Shoulder Strap, and Sleeve. I later added a semi-oval of material to the front decolletage.

One change I would make to the pattern is to widen the front skirt to maybe 15 inches (instead of 10). The side seam of the skirt does not stretch around to the back as far as it did in period examples.

Construction Steps

1. Skirt: Sew the skirt together first, beginning with the centre back seam, leaving a 10 inch opening at the top. The long edge of the triangular side gores are then sewn to the back skirt panels and to remaining long edge to the front skirt panel.

2. Bodice: Sew bodice together at the side back seams, leaving the centre back seam open. The shoulder strap is then sewn to the back bodice and the front bodice. The bodice lining can be sewn together in the same way.

Sew the bodice side seam and shoulder seams

3. Bodice cont’: Make a strip of piping out of a contrasting colour, by folding a strip of material (1/2″ wide – plus seam allowances – and long enough to go around the neckline) in half lengthwise. The piping can be stuffed with cord, strips of material or wadding. I threaded a long strip of 1″ wide chiffon through it once it was attached to the bodice.

Sew the piping to the neckline of the bodice first. Then put the bodice and the bodice lining together, right sides facing, and sew them together on the same stitching line as the piping was sewn. When it is turned the right way, it should look like the picture below.

Ivory piping sewn to the neckline of the bodice

4. Attach bodice to waistband: The front bodice pieces of this era were cut out of one piece with no darts, which means it has almost no shaping around the bust. In order to fit it to the body, gather a small amount of the bodice underneath each bust. Adjust the gathers to fit and sew the waistband along the bottom edge of the bodice.

The underbust gathers are visible. The neckline easing is hidden under the lace.

In order to stop the front gaping at the top, I also had to run a gathering stitch along the front neckline. The gathering threads were not pulled tight enough to gather it properly, but just to draw in the neckline a little, and then I sewed over the top with a normal stay stitch. Instead of this, you could make a casing for a drawstring or ribbon around the neckline, which was a common way to help the bodice fit properly in this era.

5. Bodice Embellishment: Embroidery or sequins can now be added to the bodice.

Embroidery and beading detail

At this point, I also added a small curved piece of fabric, edged with piping, to the front decolletage, just like some of the pictures in Repository.

6. Sleeves: The sleeve seams are sewn and then a small section of the bottom edge is gathered. The armband is then attached (in the same way as binding) to the bottom edge of the sleeve. The sleeve head can then be gathered to fit the armhole. Various sleeve decorations can then be added. I pinched small sections of the sleeve together and sewed some pearl buttons to the bunched area. I also attached some matching lace around the armband. It was also common to have embroidered sleeves to match the bodice.

Sleeve detail

7. Attaching the skirt to the waistband: Pleat the centre back skirt in 12 pleats on each side, each pleat using about 2.5 inches of material. Adjust the pleats to fit the waistband and sew.

Back view of 12 pleats

The waistband can then be finished off in the following manner. The seam allowances of the bodice and the skirt can be trimmed and then folded towards the waistband. Then another piece of material (i.e. waistband lining) or a piece of bias binding can be hand sewn to the inside to hide any raw edges.

8. Skirt Embellishment: The bottom edge of the skirt can be hemmed and decorated to match the bodice and sleeves. I am planning to do some embroidery around the hem to match the bodice embroidery.

The skirt detail; two strips of stuffed roulade, with netting and lace, scalloped with pearls.

9. Finishing off! Eyelets are handsewn along the centre back and lacing is inserted. I had also put in a strip of boning along the centre back, just to keep the bodice flat when laced.

Back lacing detail

The back view

All finished!

The next destination on My Regency Journey is a reticule to match this charming ensemble. – coming soon!

To view these posts in order, go to My Regency Journey.

Related Posts

My Regency Journey: In the beginning…

My Regency Journey: Making a Dress for Daywear

My Regency Journey: Making an Embroidered Morning Negligee

Sources and Relevant Links

Making a Toile

Fashion Plates of the Regency – this site has reproduced a vast collection of fashion plates from the Regency period.

Ackermann’s The Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufacturers, Fashions and Politics, Series 2, Vol. 6 (1818) – read online

It’s All in the Details: Making a Regency Ball Gown – design tips for historically accurate gowns

How to make Hand-worked Eyelets

Regency Embroidery Designs – this site has reproduced quite a collection of embroidery designs from the Regency period.

Jane Austen’s Letters – read online

Jane Austen Festival – website

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Ackermann’s Repository was a publication dedicated to, according to its title, the Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics. In 1818 there appeared in its pages a letter from a reader concerning the path to a happy marriage (entitled, Rules and Maxims for Matrimonial Happiness).

Its contents could initially be supposed, by a person – like myself – distant to the time period, to be an adequate reflection of the ideals of marriage in the early nineteenth century, however a reply in the next issue of the journal leads me to suppose that this man’s conservative opinion was truly conservative.

The opening paragraph of Miss Sophia Stickelfort's letter

This reply, written by a lady called Sophia Stickelfort, contains much admonishment to the Editor for his insertion of such a letter. She goes on to exclaim that “no woman possessing an atom of feeling or spirit, could ever live happily with a man who would observe the rules laid down by him.” (Which I can readily believe!)

She criticises the creator of ‘Rules and Maxims’, wondering how his married life could have been so miserable when he has been in possession of such rules that he claims could have improved the happiness of any who would follow them. She does acknowledge that women do promise “to love, cherish and to obey” when they repeat after the clergyman their Anglican marriage vows, but she points out that the writer seems to have forgotten his own part in the ceremony, that is, his pledge to “love and to cherish”.

I found it rather funny to hear her relate the manner in which women found their own type of “power” in this type of marriage.

You know, Mr Editor, or at least if you are a married man you ought to know, that in most families the nominal supremacy is vested in the husband, but the real power is in the hands of the wife; that is to say, she is contented to let her husband appear to rule, provided she rules him.

It was also interesting to hear her admit that it is not an ideal way for women to have power, but that a husband’s authority should hold sway. However, she does follow with an important point about the rights of women to self-govern their behaviour.

Now I am willing to admit, that this is wrong on the part of the wife, for in certain points I think the husband’s authority ought to be undisputed; but I should like to know, has the wife no rights of her own to defend? Are her time, her occupations, even her amusements, to be at the mercy of an arbitrary master – who will undervalue her talents, be a spy upon her conduct, and refuse her even the liberty of reading such authors as she may prefer; for what else can be meant by the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth articles?

Husbands might benefit from their own advice!

She goes on to express her desire that men should also read the sermons of “the fathers of the church” in order to provide themselves with instruction, which is not all that unreasonable. It is unfortunate that, while men have told women for centuries that they should obey their husbands (which it never actually says in the Bible, though it does say “submit”), the sentence where St Paul declares that husbands should love their wives as Christ loves the church and gave Himself for her, is less often quoted (Ephesians 5:25). I am sure that if all women were loved like this, they would have had a lot less trouble obeying!

I find that more light is shed on the actual state of marriage in the Regency period when this lady states, “I have no objection to make to those [rules] which he has added for the use of wives: on the contrary, I think that the observance of them would essentially promote matrimonial happiness.” These rules, which are reprinted in full in my former post, cluster around issues of respect for the husband and, whilst they are still quite conservative, they may merely be the way in which Regency wives demonstrated their love and respect for their husbands.

A new principle for happiness in marriage...

Sophia Sticklefort’s main contention seems to be with this man’s view of the manner in which a husband should deal with his wife. The author of ‘Rules and Maxims’ seems to represent the view that no reciprocal love or respect from the husband to the wife is necessary in a marriage, which is clearly (in my mind, and even in a Regency woman’s mind) not conducive to marital happiness!

In her conclusion, she quotes a poem by Matthew Prior (1664-1721) and suggests that any such rules for connubial felicity need to be set on “a different principle”; in short, a principle of love, forgiveness, and gentleness. What good advice!

Whilst the beginning of the nineteenth century was a time where women did not have most (or any) of the same rights as men, there was still the prevailing opinion – according to contemporary sources – that men and women were equal (if not in the sight of the law, in the sight of God at least!).

In addition, the prevailing opinion was changing as to the acceptable reasons for marrying. The decision of whom to marry, whilst still a financial decision, was changing so that love and affection could also form part of the choice.

Jane Austen, in her letters to her niece (1814), encouraged her to choose a husband for whom she felt affection.

Nothing can be compared to the misery of being bound without love.

Jane still maintained the importance of marrying someone who had the means to live, but equal to that was her conviction that love was something to be desired in a marriage.

There are such beings in the world, perhaps one in a thousand, as the creature you and I should think perfection, where grace and spirit are united to worth, where the manners are equal to the heart and understanding, but such a person may not come in your way, or, is he does, he may not be the eldest son of a man of fortune, the near relation of your particular friend and belonging to your own country. […] Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without affection…

I find it reassuring that, regardless of the state of women’s rights in the nineteenth century, it did seem to be recognised that in order to have a happy marriage both parties needed to love and respect each other! Good advice in any century!

Related Posts

Advice to Avoid Matrimonial Misery

Sources and Relevant Links

Ackermann’s Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics (1818) – This letter was printed on page 86-87.

The Solemnisation of Matrimony, The Book of Common Prayer (for the Anglican Church)

Ephesians, Chapter 5, King James Version

Matthew Prior’s poems

Letters of Jane Austen to her niece, Fanny Knight

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The benefits of marriage have been long understood, and were even pronounced solemnly during the wedding service!

First, It was ordained for the procreation of children, to be brought up in the fear and nurture of the Lord, and to the praise of his holy Name.

Secondly, It was ordained for a remedy against sin, and to avoid fornication; that such persons as have not the gift of continency might marry, and keep themselves undefiled members of Christ’s body.

Thirdly, It was ordained for the mutual society, help, and comfort, that the one ought to have of the other, both in prosperity and adversity.

The Solemnisation of Matrimony, from The Book of Common Prayer (1662)

However, despite such a long and glorious tradition, one continues to wonder at the key to a happy marriage! Unfortunately, it is not just in the modern era that we wonder such things. They also did in 1818, with one reader of Ackermann’s Repository (1818) composing a rather extensive set of directives “for producing connubial felicity” for the betterment of his fellow man.

The Editor, in accepting this letter for publication, acknowledged that the author of it had also related his tales of woe concerning his own marriage and the misery that it had caused him. Undoubtedly, you will not find it hard to imagine him in misery upon reading his advice to husbands and wives.

Rules and Maxims for Matrimonial Happiness

  1. When courting your mistress [future wife], never miscall her by the name of angel or goddess, lest she mistake it for truth, and forget that she is mortal and a woman.
  2. When putting the question (as it is termed), be careful not to allow her to suppose that your happiness, or even comfort, depends on her assent: recollect that you are making a proposal, not begging a boon.
  3. Teach her beforehand, that the marriage ceremony is not a mere matter of form, and explain fully the meaning of the word obey.
  4. Be careful. at church, that she repeats every word distinctly after the clergyman, that she may afterwards have no excuse for acting in opposition.
  5. When you take her home, tell her that she is to command your servants, but that you are to command her. On placing in her hands the household sceptre, make her understand, that she is only a tributary sovereign, and that you are her liege lord.
  6. Be not imperious, but decided, and always speak as if it were a matter of course to be obeyed.
  7. Be not backward to blame, lest she attribute it to fear: if once she knows that you are afraid of her, your authority is at an end, and you become a poor, degraded, dependant, miserable creature.
  8. If pleasure or business take you from home, expect cheerful looks on your return; the surest way to secure them is to give them: a wife, like the moon, should shine by reflection, and her brightness should arise from the glory of her husband. Be sure, however, to guard against the variableness of your moon, and allow no one to eclipse her in your eyes.
  9. If she be of an obstinate or sulky temper, do not proceed to extremities, lest you fail, but shew he that you do not mind it: treat her as if you did not perceive it, and her own mortification will be her cure.
  10. If she be passionate and violent, be you cool and collected in proportion: if she irritates you, she has mounted one step of her throne and you descended one step of yours.
  11. Treat her as the mistress of your family before the servants, owning you only as her superior and lord paramount.
  12. If she be fond of reading (which itself is a misfortune, and to be discouraged), let her have no novels: if she must read, give her the memoirs of Roman wives and matrons: if she prefer light reading, put before her the words of the fathers of the church.
  13. Be careful that she do not think too well of herself in point of learning, lest she soon fancy herself superior.
  14. If she be witty, teach her that the best mode of shewing it is to conceal it.
  15. If you take her to places of public amusement, make her know that it is the reward of, and not a bribe to, good conduct.
  16. Let her be as little as possible along: if a man, according to the philosopher, is not to be trusted by himself, ought we to have more confidence in a woman?
  17. Finally, love her, but do not shew it too much, lest she take advantage of it: as all wives desire power, it should be the business of all husbands to prevent their obtaining it.

But wait! There’s more! This gentleman also furnished the Editor with a second set of maxims to which wives should adhere to.

Rules to be Observed by Wives

  1. When a young gentleman makes you an offer, hold yourself flattered by his preference, and be proportionately grateful.
  2. If you accept him (which we will suppose of course), study his temper and inclinations, that you may better accommodate your own to them.
  3. After marriage obey him cheerfully, even though you think him in error: it is better that he should do wrong in what he commands, than that you should do wrong in objecting to it.
  4. If he flatters you, do not forget that it is but flattery: think lowly of yourself and highly of him, or at least make him believe so.
  5. If you see any imperfections in your husband (which there may be), do not pride yourself of your penetration in discovering them, but on your forbearance in not pointing them out: strive shew no superiority, but in good temper.
  6. Bear in mind continually, that you are weak and dependant; and even if you are beautiful, that it adds to your weakness and dependance.
  7. If you displease him, be the first to conciliate and to mend: there is no degradation in seeking peace, or in shewing that you love your husband better than your triumph.
  8. If misfortunes assail you, remember that you ought to sustain you share of the burden: imitate your husband’s fortitude, or shew your own for his imitation.
  9. When you rise in the morning, resolve to be cheerful for the day: let your smiles dispel his frowns.
  10. Take pride in concealing your husband’s infirmities from others, rather than in proclaiming them: you will only be laughed at by all your acquaintances if you tell his faults to one.
  11. Endeavour rather to save than to spend your husband’s money: if his fortune be large, strive to preserve it; if small, to increase it.
  12. Be not importunate or obtrusive in your fondness, and choose proper occasions for your caresses, lest they prove wearisome.
  13. Finally, recollect always that God has made yon subject to him, and that he is your natural guardian and protector; that you owe your husband not less honour than love, and not less love than obedience.

Now, it needs to be said that this view of matrimony, even in 1818, was a little conservative. Even James Forsythe, an Anglican clergyman, was not so conservative when he wrote his Sermons to Young Women (1766) and his Addresses to Young Men (1777).

Jane Austen (1775-1817), whose father was a devout clergyman (as was two of her brothers) and was herself also considered to be very religious, would hardly have condoned this view of matrimony. The Austen family (both women and men) certainly ALL read novels!

This article was also written considerably before the stricter Victorian ideals about female behaviour had entered English society. This leads me to consider that this gentleman occupies the conservative side of the debate in his day. It also makes me wonder what sort of woman he married!

I have written a subsequent post about the response the Editor received in the next issue of Ackermann’s Repository, after the publication of this advice.

Related Posts

A Reply to Rules and Maxims for Matrimonial Happiness

Sources and Relevant Links

Ackermann’s Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics (1818) – this letter was printed on page 29-32.

The (Anglican) Book of Common Prayer

The Solemnisation of Matrimony, The Book of Common Prayer

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